Adolf Hitler waged two wars: a military war against the Allies, and a racial war against socalled "sub-humans." More than six million Jews were murdered during the Nazi Holocaust. Six million non-Jews also perished: Romany or Gypsies, Slavs, Jehovah's Witnesses, the handicapped and mentally ill, homosexuals, political prisoners, and foreigners.
Between 1933 and 1945, 190,000 European Jews reached the US. Because of the anti-Semitism and strict government restrictions, many more refugees were unable to immigrate to safety in America. Prior to America's entry into the war, 80,000 Jewish-Americans were caught in Europe. Hundreds, including some Californians, were rounded up and transported to Nazi concentration camps. In California, home to Hollywood, many prominent Jewish directors and producers had begun to make films with anti-Nazi messages prior to Pearl Harbor. Jewish actors, such as the Three Stooges' Moe Howard (born Moses Horwitz) – who was the first actor to portray Hitler – hoped that their films would alert their fellow Americans to the rising Nazi threat. Despite such efforts, many films came under sharp criticism from American isolationists.